The hottest Liu Yongdong electric vehicle charging

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Liu Yongdong: the technology and standard of electric vehicle charging facilities

the original planning objectives and the choice of charging technology route are based on the understanding of charging facilities in 2012 and 2013. At present, the industry has changed greatly. For example, the original idea was to mainly use AC charging, and most car owners charge in their own parking spaces, but at present, the parking spaces in first tier cities are tight, and the one-to-one AC charging technology route is difficult to meet the needs of car owners

on the other hand, with the further development of the new energy vehicle industry, the ownership will continue to rise, and the demand for charging piles will also increase day by day. The construction scale of charging piles in the future is very huge

evaluation of the development of different charging and changing technologies

1 2015 charging technology route

refers to the charging technology route proposed after the state issued the opinions on accelerating the construction of charging infrastructure in 2015, which is currently the most widely used. It mainly focuses on the slow charging of residential areas, supplemented by the construction of fast charging beside roads, parking stations and highways, and changes electricity in specific areas. With the development of charging facilities in residential areas, unit parking lots and urban public places in China, the 2015 version of charging technology will exist for a long time and be further improved

2. Battery replacement technology

in the future, battery replacement technology will still be mainly applied to specific vehicles operating in local areas, such as taxis, rentals, buses, etc. Considering the cascade utilization of batteries and the development of energy storage and energy interconnection, there is still room for battery replacement

from 2011 to 2014, the power company led the power exchange exploration, and the effect was not good. The biggest cost of new energy vehicles is batteries, which is a very core commanding point in technology. The proposal of "separation of vehicle and electricity" in that year seemed to lower the threshold of new energy vehicles, but car enterprises were not satisfied. The standardization of battery box and interface is the prerequisite for the industrialization and scale of power exchange. If the battery is required to be standardized and unified, not only will the battery enterprises have different voices, but also limit the design of vehicle models. It is difficult to embody the personalization of vehicles, and the price is difficult to increase, which limits the development of vehicle enterprises

after 2016, a new round of power replacement technology route was carried out led by vehicle enterprises. Batteries are consistent with the stakeholders of car enterprises, and their application scope is mainly in the field of leasing and leasing. The models in this field are relatively stable, and it is easy to realize the standardization of battery boxes

this power rotation also extends the industrial chain, combining power replacement with battery replacement and energy storage. The consistency of batteries is relatively good. Compared with passenger cars, the maintenance and use of batteries are more safe and reliable. Under the condition of power change, the possibility of battery reuse is higher, and the cascade utilization of batteries is easier to realize

3. High power DC charging technology

years, research on Key Technologies of high-power charging, formulation of key standards (such as high-power charging interface, liquid cooling cable components, communication protocol), and small-scale trial operation; In, it was put into commercial use; In, it began to be put into use on a large scale

the application scenarios of high-power charging are:

1) long range vehicles. The range of new energy vehicles is getting longer and longer. Many models reach fourorfive kilometers, and their battery capacity is relatively low. According to the 2015 version, the charging experience is very poor, and high-power charging technology is required

2) in the field of leasing and logistics, time is precious, and we hope to speed up charging

3) buses and heavy-duty vehicles have a large number of batteries, and the original charging speed is far from meeting the demand

4) public charging in mega cities. The 2015 version of charging technology is mainly slow charging. Parking spaces in megacities are very tight, and public charging is just needed. According to the survey of Guangzhou charging platform, a person charges out for minutes twice a week on average, which is unbearable for a long time. The charging time should be kept at minutes

5) for highways, it is hard to imagine that in the peak periods of May 1st and 11th in 2035 and 2050, new energy vehicles will still be charged for half an hour in the highway service area, and the service area will become a parking lot

4. Small power DC charging technology

years, research on Key Technologies of small power charging, formulation of key standards, and small-scale trial operation; In, it was put into commercial use and put into use on a large scale. Its positioning is to provide a new option to replace the AC charging pile

low power DC charging originated from logistics vehicles. In order to save costs, logistics vehicles often cancel the OBC on the vehicle and use portable 10 kW and 15 kW DC chargers. According to the requirements of gb/t 18487 standard, DC charging must be hard connected and must be connected to the electrical power supply. Portable DC charger does not meet the standard. Portable low-power DC charger must be developed to meet the industrial demand of temporary charging. Car companies are exploring ways to eliminate OBC in cars and design 7 kW and 15 kW wall mounted DC chargers to solve the problem of low-power charging

this technical route is of great value to the whole industry. For car enterprises, the elimination of OBC can save space, simplify the charging technology route and reduce costs. For operators, only DC charging has a communication protocol, and it is inevitable to interact with electricity in the future. For example, car pile interaction is required for reservation charging and orderly charging, and low-power DC charging can solve this problem. In terms of total social cost, OBC is a customized product with high cost. If it becomes a low-power charging product, it will become an offline product, and the cost will inevitably drop significantly

at present, the preliminary preparation of the industry standard is in progress, and the industry standard plan has been applied for approval, and it is expected to be issued by the end of 2020

5. Wireless charging technology

at present, the relevant technologies and standards of wireless charging are still in the stage of gradual improvement. It is estimated that by 2020, wireless charging standards can basically support the interoperability requirements of wireless charging; During the year, wireless charging technology will gradually realize commercial operation, and expand from local specific applications to general commercial applications. Its application scenarios mainly include: autonomous vehicle, high-end cars, shared cars, three-dimensional parking garages, scenic spots, station special vehicles, etc

6. V2x technology

Industrial Development Trends: V2G (electricity), v2hv2b (residence), v2l (load), V2V (vehicle), orderly charging, demand response, charging and discharging under micro electricity, virtual power plant, energy interconnection

v2x technology involves many fields. It is too early to talk about V2G at this stage. The route of V2G should be combined with different scenarios. At this stage, wireless charging is valuable

to sum up, different technical routes have different needs and apply to different application scenarios. The charging technology should meet the specific charging needs of users; The industrialization process of charging technology is closely related to the maturity of charging technology and cost reduction, as well as the development of electric vehicles; Different charging technology routes have certain substitutability. It is recommended that all regions establish charging service systems suitable for different charging needs

high power charging technology and standards

1 Background of high-power charging technology

high-power charging technology of electric vehicles includes two types, one is conductive high-power charging, and the other is wireless high-power charging. Among them, conducted high-power charging is divided into passenger car high-power charging technology and passenger car high-power charging technology. Conducted high-power charging technology, charging power ≥ 350kW, charging time of about minutes, and endurance mileage of 300 kilometers

since 2016, more than 50 domestic and international relevant conferences have been held to jointly carry out the pre research of relevant standards. At the international level, we have carried out in-depth discussions with Germany, Japan and the United States

2. Working ideas of high-power charging technology

high power charging technology adopts the working ideas of extensive research, industry discussion, joint research and development of key technologies, demonstration pilot construction, standard development and international cooperation. Participating enterprises include electric vehicles, power batteries, charging guns, charging cables, chargers, etc

extensive research: CEC has conducted extensive and in-depth research with electric vehicle manufacturers and charging service operators; China Promotion Alliance launched the research topic of "development roadmap and standard system construction of electric vehicle charging technology" and conducted industry research

industry discussion: carry out industry discussion on the technical route of adopting new interface for high-power charging interface; The feasibility analysis of China's high-power charging interface is carried out, and the comparison and analysis of the original interface with cooling mode and the new interface with cooling mode are carried out respectively, forming the "feasibility analysis report of China's high-power charging interface"

joint research and development of key technologies: Industry joint development of key technologies in high-power charging, such as vehicle voltage level, fast charging battery and battery thermal management, charging connector assembly, communication protocol, charger, etc

demonstration pilot construction: led by State Grid Corporation of China, Wanbang New Energy Investment Co., Ltd. and Shenzhen otexun Electric Appliance Co., Ltd., automobile, battery, charging connector enterprises and charging facility enterprises are linked in Beijing, Nanjing, Changzhou, Jinan, Shenzhen and other places. BAIC, FAW, BYD, Daimler, BMW, Audi and other car companies will send cars for testing

development standards: formulate and revise standards for charging connector components, communication protocols, chargers and other standards to form high-power charging technical standards compatible with the existing charging technical standard system

International Cooperation: insist on giving priority to ourselves and make full use of international resources; Actively participate in and play a leading role in international standardization

high power charging technology is a supplement to the existing 2015 charging technology route, and it is the application demand under certain scenarios. It will coexist with the existing charging technology route for a long time

3. Conditions for carrying out high-power charging

as a systematic project, high-power charging technology takes years from technology proposal to standard formulation. In order to apply the development plan of automobiles around 2020, it is necessary to pay close attention to the research, engineering practice and standard pre research of high-power charging technology

in terms of complete vehicles, most car companies plan to increase the charging current to a in 2020, reach 500A in 2025, and the range will reach 400 ~ 500 kilometers

in terms of power batteries, battery enterprises represented by Ningde times plan to mass produce power batteries charged at 3C rate in 2018, and adopt reasonable charging range and charging strategy to ensure the service life of power batteries

in terms of charging facilities, the new charging technology represented by charging pile realizes the integration of charging modules and the dynamic distribution of charging power, and the charging power reaches 350kW and above

4. The main technical indicators of high-power charging technology

the application of high-power charging facilities will not affect the layout and application of the original charging facilities, and there is no phenomenon of a repeat of the technical route

1) long term goal of passenger cars

• charging voltage 1000 (1500) v

• charging current: without cooling, maximum current 120a, power 120kw; With cooling, the maximum current is 400 ~ 500 (600) a

• interface standards achieve forward compatibility

2) electric bus

• terminal charging: 2015 version interface or high-power charging interface

• charge on the way: charge the pantograph to make up the electricity

3) forward compatibility scheme

the high-power charger will be equipped with two interfaces: high-power charging and 2015 version. It can be equipped with an interface adapter with the vehicle, and can continue to use 2015 version charging on the existing charging equipment. The pilot circuit is forward compatible and continues to use the same can physical interface as the 2015 version. The adapter only completes the physical size conversion, and the cost is controlled within a very low range

5. Main technical scheme of high-power charging technology

1) technical scheme of electric vehicle voltage platform

• realize charging power

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