Optimal design of warehouse in the hottest manufac

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Manufacturing enterprise warehouse optimization design

in our country, manufacturing enterprises often pay attention to how to arrange the production area in the initial design of the plant, but ignore the layout of logistics links, resulting in the production area and warehousing logistics are located in far away areas. Blindly pursuing the centralization of production and management leads to the disconnection between storage layout and production layout, so a lot of resources are invested in the logistics process in the production process, and the resource allocation is extremely unreasonable

people mostly pay attention to the internal setting of the warehouse, the distribution of materials according to the location, ABC inventory management method, FIFO principle, three-dimensional shelves, fluent shelves, material supermarkets, etc. it is undeniable that these are necessary means or tools for managing the warehouse, but the initial layout is congenital insufficient, resulting in the operation of the entire logistics system is complex and cumbersome

Figure 1 layout mode of most factory buildings

therefore, more and more enterprises consider using another layout method in the layout of factory buildings, that is, the material storage area and the production area are set in the same factory building, and the material storage area surrounds the production area, so as to shorten the distance between the storage area and the material demand area. However, in the actual operation process, managers found that simply relying on such an encirclement mode, there is a complex phenomenon of staggered material flow routes, as shown in Figure 2:

Figure 2 material flow routes

from Figure 2, it can be seen that there is an intersection between the material flow routes and the routes of finished products offline, and the internal flows of materials also interfere with each other, resulting in a very chaotic overall logistics route. After a long time of exploration, managers found another logistics mode, the flow of materials and finished products is a one-way flow mode. After continuous improvement of this mode, it finally developed into a lean logistics mode

Figure 3 lean logistics model

when arranging the layout of materials in the warehouse, in order to facilitate the review of material shortage and timely and accurately find the status of material shortage, the internal layout of the warehouse location is to divide the warehouse into large areas according to the operation line, that is, the storage area is divided according to the line, and the size of the storage area is based on the maximum receipt of materials, The specific calculation method is:

where: the maximum receiving capacity of the material = the bending compression and bending tension of the material plexiglass material have different elastic modulus and receiving cycle time × Daily standard demand

the material receiving cycle time is the longest advance cycle of material incoming ahead of production (for example, the material receiving cycle is 4 days, and the material needs to be warehoused within 4 days of operation production, and the day of operation production here is also within 4 days)

example: a certain production line of a factory needs 5 kinds of materials a, B, C, D, e when producing a certain product, and the stacking standard of materials is 10 boxes/pallet of material a, The operation method and daily maintenance of the bellows ring stiffness testing machine for material B 8, material C 12, material D 10 and material e 10. The unit quantities are 30 pieces/box for material a, 40 pieces/box for material B, 50 pieces/box for material C, 20 pieces/box for material D and 60 pieces/box for material e. the receiving cycle time of the five materials is 3 days. The standard capacity of the production line is 100 sets/hour, The standard production time per day is 10 hours (only after the production is completed can we get off work). Five kinds of materials are temporarily stored in pallets, and the pallet specification is 1.0m × 1.2m, the tray area utilization rate is 0.75, then the storage area required for the product is:

according to the data counted by this method, the actual area required for the actual placement of materials is often different from the technical value, mainly because there may be materials that exceed the pallet bearing surface when placed, or there are obstacles such as columns and fire hydrants on the production site, which affect the placement of materials, so planners are required to draw simulation diagrams, To simulate placement, figure 4 is a partial interception of the simulated layout of storage area demand drawn by an enterprise:

Figure 4 simulated layout of storage area of an enterprise

in the process of logistics operation, Japan wants to overtake on a curve! The flow direction of materials in the warehouse location should be consistent with the production flow direction as far as possible, so as to reduce the mutual influence caused by the twists and turns of the route in the logistics process. It can be seen from Figure 4 that the material warehousing channel is different from the material distribution channel. The materials enter the temporary storage area from the main warehousing channel in the middle of the warehouse location, and then are distributed to the demand station by the distribution channel (within the enterprise, the production flow direction is the same as the distribution logistics flow direction, that is, the green arrow indicates the direction, as shown in Figure 5 below)

Figure 5 material flow roadmap

how to ensure that materials enter from the middle and exit from both sides? In other words, how to ensure that the FIFO of materials can directly affect the final test results? The usual practice is to use a pallet car or trolley with wheels. Of course, a slide rail can also be set inside the warehouse location. For example, the fluent shelf uses the principle of gravity to realize the first in first out of materials

in order to facilitate the incoming and outgoing operations of materials, in the actual operation process, managers often artificially divide the temporary storage area of materials into several pieces. The usual division method is to take the daily output as the division volume, and also take the single set order volume as the division volume. The specific division method depends on their own conditions, but the maximum depth of the warehouse location is usually not more than 10 pallets (1.0m × 1.2m)

conclusion: how to improve production capacity, improve efficiency and reduce costs is a problem that every enterprise continues to explore, and it is also the root of enterprise development. Most enterprises adopt the method of headache healing, that is, they desperately look for problems in the production process, but ignore the role and problems of production auxiliary links, especially the impact of logistics links. Although more and more people flaunt logistics orientation and logistics first and then generation, in actual operation, for one reason or another, logistics has become the Achilles' heel of production-oriented enterprises. I hope this article can provide some help for those planners or managers who are committed to reducing factory costs and improving production efficiency. (end)

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